Annual Report on Migration and Asylum Policy 202210.07.2023
The European Migration Network (EMN) Annual Report on Migration and Asylum 2022 provides a comprehensive overview of EU and national developments across a wide range of migration and asylum topics, including the response to the influx of persons fleeing the war in Ukraine, legal migration, international protection, minors and vulnerable groups, integration, citizenship and statelessness, borders, visa and Schengen area, irregular migration including smuggling; trafficking in human beings; return and readmission; and migration and development cooperation. What were common trends in migration and asylum at EU and national level in 2022?
- Following the invasion of Ukraine by Russia on 24 February 2022, the European Migration Network (EMN) Member and Observer Countries focused their responses on providing safe shelter to people from Ukraine fleeing the war. European Union (EU) Member States implemented the Temporary Protection Directive (TPD) (2001/55/EC), which was activated on 4 March 2022 for the first time since its adoption in 2001.
- 2022 was the first ‘post-COVID-19 year’, as the spread of the virus was less severe compared to 2020 and 2021. This resulted in the lifting of restrictions at borders, as well as for return operations. Extensions of stay on EU Member States’ territory due to travel restrictions were also phased out during the year.
- Pressures at external borders from the Mediterranean, Western Balkan and Eastern routes continued to impact on the migration and asylum systems of EMN Member Countries in 2022. The number of irregular border crossings increased noticeably from 2021 by 64%.
- The rise in asylum applications (first-time asylum applications were up by 65% compared with 2021) put pressure on the asylum systems of Member States and Norway. This was the first increase since 2019, as applications had dipped during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Syria and Afghanistan were once again the top nationalities of asylum applicants in the 27 EU Member States (EU-27) and Norway, as had been the case since 2018. The activation of the TPD ensured that asylum systems across EU Member States would not be overwhelmed with protection requests.
- 2022 saw a number of developments in solidarity and cooperation measures on migration in the EU. Key developments included the adoption of a joint roadmap between the European Parliament and five rotating Presidencies of the Council of the EU to work together to adopt the reform of the EU migration and asylum legislative framework before the 2024 EU elections and a Declaration on Solidarity establishing a Voluntary Solidarity Mechanism (VSM).
- Attracting and retaining talent, including qualified workers to meet labour market needs, and addressing demographic change continued to be a significant priority at EU and national level.
- The protection of migrants and asylum seekers, including minors and other vulnerable groups, remained an important area of legislative and policy development.
You can find the annual report, Estonian report and other supporting documents here.